A second strand of research focused on communication flows. Major concerns of this literature are the economic, political, cultural, and ideological effects of corporate consolidation in the communication and media industries. As the Internet spread in the beginning of the century, scholarly interest developed in the potential of the new technology to mobilize ideas and people (see entry on “International Communication in Social Movements and Interest Groups”). Winning hearts and minds in the “non-industrial countries” —the second problem area—was deemed particularly important among these scholars in the early 1950s. James Curran, Professor of Communication, Goldsmith, University of London. Analytical tools of communication research were applied to the tasks of mobilizing domestic public support for the war, understanding enemy propaganda, and developing psychological warfare techniques to influence the morale and opinion of allied and enemy populations (Simpson, 1994). Some scholars have viewed the subject of cyber conflict more broadly, while others have focused more specifically on cyberwar, although it is not clear where the line for the latter is drawn. As described in the foreword to the first issue of Public Opinion Quarterly in 1937, “Always the opinions of relatively small publics have been a prime force in political life, but now, for the first time in history we are confronted nearly everywhere by mass opinion as the final determinant of political and economic action” (Czitrom, 1982, p.124). The emphasis here, as in the project’s earlier stages, was on the social psychology of short-term effects of the mass media. His developmental model of political unification posited first the development of functional linkages and increased flows of transactions between communities that “enmesh people in transcommunity communications networks” (Puchala, 1981, p. 156). By 1935, there were already 4,500 publications listed in an annotated bibliography on the subject by Lasswell and colleagues (Lasswell, Casey, & Smith, 1935), which was compiled under the auspices of the Social Science Research Council. Current research is organized around broad themes: areas of everyday life, governance and democracy, science and learning, and shaping the Internet. Communication is at the heart of all international interaction and, indeed, all human interaction. As new states began to emerge from colonial empires, communication became an important component of research on development. According to Robert Entman (2004), framing involves highlighting some facets of events or issues and making connections among them so as to promote a particular interpretation, evaluation, or solution. Many scholars who study topics that might well be included have not identified themselves as scholars of international communication. George Gallup’s founding of the American Institute of Public Opinion, in 1935, and his statistical method of survey sampling held out the promise of a new scientific approach to these questions. The development and spread of radio and film increased public awareness and scholarly interest in the phenomenon of the mass media and in issues regarding the impact on public opinion in the 1920s and 1930s. Product pricing will be adjusted to match the corresponding currency. Nevertheless, international communication persists as the conventional term to include all types of communication that occur across national boundaries or affect international outcomes.
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