laser wikipedia

Some lasers are not single spatial mode and have light beams that diverge more than is required by the diffraction limit. Laser buatan Rober Hall inilah yang hingga kini digunakan pada perangkat vcd dan dvd player, printer laser, pembaca kode bar, drive pada CPU, sistem komunikasi yang menggunakan serat optik, dan sebagainya. Lasers are distinguished from other light sources by their coherence. e When an optical amplifier is placed inside a resonant optical cavity, one obtains a laser.[14]. Perkembangan yang cukup penting terjadi pada tahun 1962 ketika seorang ilmuwan yang bekerja pada perusahaan General Electric, Robert Hall, menemukan laser semikonduktor berukuran mini dengan biaya murah. Class 3B can cause immediate eye damage upon exposure. În funcție de tipul de laser și de aplicația pentru care a fost construit, puterea transportată de fascicul poate fi foarte diferită. This is available from at least two manufacturers, Allen and Harken. d "Inherent fingerprint luminescence – detection by laser". Thin disk lasers have been shown to produce beams of up to one kilowatt.[44]. Semiconductor lasers are diodes which are electrically pumped. A Holmium-doped YAG crystals emit at 2097 nm and form an efficient laser operating at infrared wavelengths strongly absorbed by water-bearing tissues. It may be more expensive than other treatments.[80][81]. p Lasers used by hobbyists are generally of class IIIa or IIIb (see Safety), although some have made their own class IV types. p {\displaystyle R_{c1}\leq R_{c2}} 2 = Misalnya Ali Javan, William Bennet dan Donald Herriot yang membuat laser dengan media gas helium dan neon pada tahun 1960 dan keberhasilannya baru dipublikasikan pada tahun 1961. , σ R The sail area was reduced by 35% from the Standard (from 7 m² to 4,7 m²) with a shorter, pre-bent bottom mast section, allowing even lighter sailors to sail it. A Laser's date and place of manufacture can be determined by looking at the serial number stamped into the transom or under the fairlead on the bow on older hulls. [15] Thus, reflection in a resonant cavity is usually required for a laser, but is not absolutely necessary. Dalam teknologi laser, cahaya yang koheren menunjukkan suatu sumber cahaya yang memancarkan panjang gelombang yang diidentifikasi dari frekuensi yang sama, beda fase yang konstan[1] dan polarisasinya. Later that year, the Iranian physicist Ali Javan, and William R. Bennett, and Donald Herriott, constructed the first gas laser, using helium and neon that was capable of continuous operation in the infrared (U.S. Patent 3,149,290); later, Javan received the Albert Einstein Award in 1993. This can produce beams with a narrower spectrum than would otherwise be possible. In 1955, Prokhorov and Basov suggested optical pumping of a multi-level system as a method for obtaining the population inversion, later a main method of laser pumping. Le principe du laser est décrit dès 1917 par Einstein, mais ce n'est qu'en 1953 que le premier prototype utilisant ce principe est construit. Pump light may be provided by a flash lamp or by another laser. à Având în vedere că în mediul activ și în cavitatea optică există pierderi prin absorbție, reflexie parțială, împrăștiere, difracție, există un nivel minim, de prag, al energiei care trebuie furnizată mediului activ pentru a se obține efectul laser. It was the first attempt at making a smaller rig for smaller sailors. [19] Another type is a Raman laser, which takes advantage of Raman scattering to produce a laser from materials such as silicon. {\displaystyle \Delta N=N_{2}-N_{1}} R Electrons and how they interact with electromagnetic fields are important in our understanding of chemistry and physics. Ada berbagai jenis laser. Le laser téramobile peut servir à détecter et mesurer des polluants atmosphériques ou à frayer à la foudre un chemin rectiligne[15]. ℏ The U.S. Patent Office denied his application, and awarded a patent to Bell Labs, in 1960. The way to overcome this problem was to charge up large capacitors which are then switched to discharge through flashlamps, producing an intense flash. Living cells have been used to produce laser light. {\displaystyle N} Si à un instant While FEL beams share the same optical traits as other lasers, such as coherent radiation, FEL operation is quite different. Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, laser digunakan pada berbagai bidang. The population inversion is actually maintained in the dopant. Laser à Nd-YAG à impulsions et fréquence quadruplée, laser pulsé à excimer, laser pulsé à vapeur de cuivre. directivitate — proprietatea de a se propaga pe distanțe mari cu o divergență foarte mică și, ca urmare, capacitatea de a fi focalizate pe o arie foarte mică; intensitate — unele dispozitive emit un fascicul suficient de intens pentru a fi folosite la tăierea metalelor. = t l'intensité dans la cavité vaut [20] In 1928, Rudolf W. Ladenburg confirmed the existence of the phenomena of stimulated emission and negative absorption. d Laser sailing and racing present a unique set of physical and skill-based challenges. Para ilmuwan ini dianggap pembuat untuk laser gas karena bahan-bahan yang mereka gunakan untuk membuat laser pada umumnya berupa zat gas. 1 R The techniques these sailors introduced use a much more dynamic sailing method, concentrating on surfing the waves going downwind. {\displaystyle E_{1}} Lasers are used to treat cancer by shrinking or destroying tumors or precancerous growths. [35] Since the laser operates in the superconducting regime, it is more stable than other semiconductor-based lasers. (However, the term is not applied to mode-locked lasers, where the intention is to create very short pulses at the rate of the round-trip time.). Some of the light escapes through this mirror. Excitation dans du plasma de samarium à ultra-haute température formé par une irradiation par double impulsion de l'ordre du térawatt (Nd-verre, Vulcan laser), Première démonstration avec un laser opérant dans les rayons X avec une longueur d'onde inférieure à 10 nm. Laser (singkatan dari bahasa Inggris: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) merupakan mekanisme suatu alat yang memancarkan radiasi elektromagnetik, biasanya dalam bentuk cahaya yang tidak dapat dilihat maupun dapat lihat dengan mata normal, melalui proses pancaran terstimulasi. On the other hand, the light from a semiconductor laser typically exits the tiny crystal with a large divergence: up to 50°. I After a few sail modifications, the Laser easily won its class. Le rayonnement émis peut aussi bien être continu que discontinu suivant le mode de pompage. In most lasers, lasing begins with spontaneous emission into the lasing mode. Astfel este posibil ca pornind de la un singur foton, generat prin emisie spontană, să se obțină un fascicul cu un număr imens de fotoni, toți având aceleași caracteristici cu fotonul inițial. = [citation needed], Photonic crystal lasers are lasers based on nano-structures that provide the mode confinement and the density of optical states (DOS) structure required for the feedback to take place. Extremely high powers in ultrashort pulses can be achieved with Yb:YAG. All such devices are classified as "lasers" based on their method of producing light, i.e., stimulated emission. σ Laser juga dapat dikatakan efek dari mekanika kuantum. Northrop Grumman's Press Release on the Firestrike 15 kW tactical laser product. The resonator typically consists of two mirrors between which a coherent beam of light travels in both directions, reflecting back on itself so that an average photon will pass through the gain medium repeatedly before it is emitted from the output aperture or lost to diffraction or absorption. Helium-silver (HeAg) 224 nm and neon-copper (NeCu) 248 nm are two examples. {\displaystyle n} The Rooster 8.1 rig has a UK Portsmouth Yardstick number of 1045,[6] it is faster than the Laser Standard rig. [60] It was conjectured that the nucleus of an atom, embedded in the near field of a laser-driven coherently-oscillating electron cloud would experience a larger dipole field than that of the driving laser. Examples of pulsed systems with high peak power: Even the first laser was recognized as being potentially dangerous. ... L'état Recent developments have also shown the use of monolithically integrated nanowire lasers directly on silicon for optical interconnects, paving the way for chip level applications. Hingga pada tahun 1977 Gordon memenangkan paten tersebut. However, quantum mechanical effects force electrons to take on discrete positions in orbitals. Un jeu laser aussi connu sous le nom de marque Laser Force ou Laser game sous l'appellation générique Laser tag est une activité physique où les participants, revêtus de combinaisons à capteurs, se tirent dessus avec des « pistolets laser ». Lasers can be rigged with a variety of rigs. 1 σ The molecular fluorine laser, emitting at 157 nm in the vacuum ultraviolet is sometimes referred to as an excimer laser, however this appears to be a misnomer inasmuch as F2 is a stable compound. [6] The equivalent yardstick in North America is the D-PN, which is 91.1 for a Laser.[7]. Une source laser associe un amplificateur optique à une cavité optique, encore appelée résonateur, généralement constituée de deux miroirs, dont un au moins est partiellement réfléchissant, c'est-à-dire qu'une partie de la lumière sort de la cavité et l'autre partie est réinjectée vers l'intérieur de la cavité laser. Dans le cas d'un modèle de transition entre 2 niveaux bas et haut, notés respectivement 2 0 n Le milieu amplificateur est une fibre optique dopée avec des ions de terres rares. p A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. Others such as Isidor Rabi and Polykarp Kusch expected that it would be impractical and not worth the effort. Trecerea fotonilor prin mediul activ are ca efect dezexcitarea atomilor și deci micșorarea factorului de amplificare optică a mediului. La vision de réflexions diffuses est normalement sans danger. Eventually, the electron decays to a lower energy level which is not occupied, with transitions to different levels having different time constants. Although temporal coherence implies monochromaticity, there are lasers that emit a broad spectrum of light or emit different wavelengths of light simultaneously. Light of a specific wavelength that passes through the gain medium is amplified (increases in power).

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